Quinoa (pronounced Keen-wah) is an ancient food that has been cultivated in South American Andes since at least 3,000 B.C. Quinoa has been a staple food of millions of native inhabitants, the Incas called quinoa the “mother grain” and revered it as sacred. Technically quinoa is not a true grain, but is the seed of the Chenopodium or Goosefoot plant. It is used as a grain and substituted for grains because of it’s cooking characteristics. The name comes from the Greek words, chen (a goose) and pous (a foot).
In Peru, Chile, and Bolivia, quinoa is widely cultivated for its nutritious seeds, and they are referred to as “little rice.” The seeds are used in creating various soups, pastas and bread, and also fermented with millet to make a beer-like beverage. Quinoa has been grown outside of South America for a relatively short time. It is grown in Canada and has been grown in the U.S. in Colorado since the 1980’s. Quinoa can be found in most natural food stores in the U.S.
Quinoa grains range in color from ivory to pinks, brown to reds, or almost black depending on the variety. There are over 120 species of Chenopodium, but only three main varieties are cultivated; one producing very pale seeds, called the white or sweet variety; a dark red fruited variety called red quinoa; and a black quinoa. Quinoa has a delightful characteristic that is all it’s own: as it cooks, the outer germ around each grain twists outward forming a little white, spiral tail, which is attached to the kernel.
Before cooking, the seeds must be rinsed to remove their bitter resin-like coating, which is called saponin. Quinoa is rinsed before it is packaged and sold, but it is best to rinse again at home before use to remove any of the powdery residue that may remain on the seeds. The presence of saponin is obvious by the production of a soapy looking “suds” when the seeds are swished in water. Placing quinoa in a strainer and rinsing thoroughly with water easily washes the saponin from the seeds.
The quinoa seed is high in protein, calcium and iron, a relatively good source of vitamin E and several B vitamins. The protein in quinoa is considered to be a complete protein due to the presence of all 8 essential amino acids. Quinoa is a 35 on the gylcemic index.
Cooked quinoa is excellent in hot casseroles and soups, stews, in stir-fries, or cold in salads. The seeds cook very quickly, in only 15 minutes. Uncooked seeds may be added to soups and stews as you would barley or rice and quinoa is often substituted for rice in rice dishes. Dry roasting quinoa in a pan or in the oven before cooking will give a toasted flavor and enhance nuttiness. Cold salads consisting of quinoa and chopped vegetables or beans make an easy and nutritious dish. Quinoa flour is used in making pasta and a variety of baked goods such as pancakes, bread, muffins, and crackers.
Basic Quinoa Recipe
2 cups water or Gluten Free broth
1 cup quinoa
Place quinoa and water in a 1-½ quart saucepan and bring to a boil. Reduce to a simmer, cover and cook until all the water is absorbed (about 15 minutes).
The quinoa is done when all the grains have turned from white to transparent, and the spiral-like germ has separated. Makes 3 cups.